Home / Minna no Nihongo / Minna No Nihongo Lesson 4 Grammar – Part 1

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 4 Grammar – Part 1

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 4 Grammar – Part 1

Grammar (Part 1)

1. 今 – 時 – 分です (Ima / ji / pun)
(We already discuss this lesson in our previous post in this group about time)
To express time, the counter suffixes 時 (o’clock) and 分 (minutes) are used. The number are put before them. 分 is read ふん after 2, 5, 7 or 9 and ぶん after 1, 3, 4, 6, 8 or 10. 1, 6, 8 and 10 are read いっ, ろっ, はっ, じゅっ(じっ) before ぶん. (See Appendices ΙΙ.)

The interrogative なん is used with a counter suffix to ask a question concerning number or amounts. Therefore, the word なんじ (or sometimes なんぶん) is used to ask the time.

今 (いま) 何時 (なんじ) ですか。
… 7時 (じ) 10分 (ぶん) です。
What time is it now?
… It’s seven ten.

2. V ます (Masu)
A verb with ます works as a predicate.
ます makes a sentence polite

わたしは 毎日 (まいにち) 勉強します。
Watashi wa mainichi benkyoushimasu
I study every day.

3. V ます, Vません, Vました, Vませんでした
ます is used when a sentence expresses a habitual thing or a truth. It is also used when a sentence expresses a thing that will occur in the future.
non-past (future/present)
affirmative (おき)ますokimasu = to wake up
negative (おき)ません okimasen = not wake up

affirmative (おき)ました = woke up
negative (おき)ませんでした = was not woke up.

毎朝 (まいあさ) 6時におきます
Maiasa roku ji ni okimasu
I get up at six every morning.

あした 6時におきます。
ashita roku ji ni okimasu
I’ll get up at six tomorrow morning.

けさ 6時におきました。
kesa roku ji ni okimasu
I got up at six this morning.

Question forms of verb sentences are made in the same way as those of noun sentence; i.e., the word order remains the same and か is added to the end of the sentence.
In answering such questions, the verbs in the questions are repeated.

そうです or そうじゃありません.
soudesu or soujaarimasen
cannot be used.

きのう 勉強しましたか。
kinou benkyoushimashita ka?
Did you study yesterday?

… はい、勉強しました。
… hai benkyoushimashita
… Yes, I did.

… いいえ、勉強しませんでした。
…iie benkyoushimasen deshita
… No, I didn’t.

毎朝 何時に 起きますか。
Mai asa nanji ni okimasuka?
What time do you get up every morning?

…6時に 起きます。
…roku ji ni okimasu.
… I get up at six.

4. N (time) に V
When a verb denotes a momentary action or movement, the time when it occurs is marked with the particle に is added when the noun before it uses a numeral. It can also be added to the days of a week, though it is not essential. When the noun does not use a numeral, に is not added.

6時半に 起きます。
roku ji han ni okimasu
I get up at six thirty.

7月2日に 日本へ 来ました。
shichi gatsu futsuka ni nihon e kimashita
I came to Japan on July 2nd.

日曜日 [に] 奈良へ 行きます。
Nichi youbi ni nara e ikimasu
I’m going to Nara on Sunday.

きのう 勉強しました。
kinou benkyoushimasu
I studied yesterday.