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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 3 Grammar

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 3 Grammar

MINNA NO NIHONGO Lesson 3
GRAMMAR
1. ここ / そこ / あそこ / こちら / そちら / あちら Koko / soko / asoko / kochira / sochira / achira
The demonstratives これ, それ and あれ that are discussed in Lesson 2 refer to a thing, while これ, それ and あれ refer to a place. ここ is the place where the speaker is, そこ the place where the listener is, あそこ is the place far from both the speaker and the listener.

こちら, そちら and あちら are demonstratives refer to direction. こちら, そちら and あちら are also used to refer to location, in which case, they are politer than これ, それ and あれ.

[Note] When the speaker regards the listener as sharing his/her territory, the place where they both are is designated by the word ここ. Under this situation, そこ designated the place a little distant from the speaker and listener, and あそこ designates an even more distant location.

2. N1 は N2 (place) です
Using this sentence pattern, you can explain where a place, a thing or a person is.

お手洗 い(おてあらい) は あそこです。
Otearai wa asoko desu
The rest room is there.

電話(でんわ) は 2階(かい)です。
Denwa wa ni kai desu
The telephone is on the second floor.

3. どこ / どちら doko / dochira
どこ means “where”, and どちら means “which direction”. どちら can also mean “where”. in which case it’s politer than どこ.

おてあらい は どこですか。
otearai wa doko desu ka?
Where’s the rest room?

… あそこです。
… Asoko desu
…It’s there.

エレベーターは どちらですか。
Eribeetaa wa dochira desu ka?
Where’s the elevator?

… あちらです。
… Achira desu
… It’s in that direction. (It’s there.)

どこ or どちら is also used to ask the name of a country, company, school or any place or organization a person belongs to. You can not use なん (what).
どちら (dochira) is politer than どこ (doko).

学校 (がっこう) は どこですか。
Gakkou wa doko desu ka?
What’s the name of your school?
or
Where is (your) school?

会社 (かいしゃ) は どちらですか。
Kaisha wa dochira desu ka?
What company do you work for?

4. N1 の N2
When N1 is the name of a country and N2 is a product, it means that N2 is made in that country.
When N1 is the name of a company and N2 is a product, it means that N2 is made by that company.
In this structure, どこ is used to ask where or by whom N2 is made.

これは どこのコンピューターですか。
Kore wa doko no kompyuutaa desu ka?
Where is this computer made?/ Who is the maker of this computer?

… 日本の コンピューターです。
… Nihon no kompyuutaa desu ka?
… It’s made in Japan.

… IMC の コンピューターです。
…IMC no kompyuutaa desu.
… IMC is.

5. お国 (おくに) okuni
The prefix お is added to a word concerning the listener or a third person in order to express the speaker’s respect to the person.

[お]国は どちらですか。
Okuni wa dochira desu ka?
Where are you from?

フィリピン です
Firipin desu.
(Im) from philippines.